Home Finance CBSE: CBSE Class 12th Political Science Syllabus 2023-24: Download PDF

CBSE: CBSE Class 12th Political Science Syllabus 2023-24: Download PDF

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PART B-POLITICS IN INDIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE 1- The challenges of nation building

Topics to prioritize:

a) Challenges for the new Nation.

Three challenges.

b) Partition: Displacement and rehabilitation.

Consequences of partition.

c) Integration of princely states.

The problem

The government’s approach



d) Reorganization of States.

  • Analyze the challenges that independent India faced.
  • Describe the factors that led to the partition of India.
  • Explain the circumstances under which different princely states signed the instrument of accession.
  • Evaluate how language became the basis for the reorganization of states.
  • Assess the role played by leaders in nation building.
2- The era of single-party domination

Topics to prioritize:

a) Challenge of building democracy.

b) Dominance of Congress in the first three general elections.

Nature of Congressional Dominance

The Congress as a social and ideological coalition.

Tolerance and faction management

c) Emergence of opposition parties

  • Appreciate the continuation of democratic politics in the country.
  • Evaluating electoral politics after independence
  • Assess the dominance of the Indian National Congress from 1952 to 1967.
  • Assess the role of opposition parties
3- Planned development policies

Topics to prioritize:

a) Political protest.

Development ideas.


Planning Commission

b) The first initiatives

The first five-year plan.

Rapid industrialization

  • Identify the different options considered by the government to balance growth and socio-economic justice.
  • Know the difference between left and right ideology
  • Understand the need for the formation of the Planning Commission.
  • Understand the need for a long-term strategic development program and policies
4- India’s foreign relations

Topics to prioritize:

a) International context

b) The policy of non-alignment.

Nehru’s role

Distance of two camps.

Afro-Asian unity

c) Peace and conflict with China

The Chinese invasion 1962

War and peace with Pakistan

Bangladesh War 1971

d) India’s nuclear policy.

  • Recognize the importance of NAM
  • Interpret, compare and contrast the multilateral aspects of Indochinese relations
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the Indo-Pakistani wars
  • Appreciate the steps taken by the Indian government to develop military capacity
  • Reflect and introspect on the choices that the country must consider for the cause of development and peacebuilding.
5- Challenges and restoration of the congress system

Topics to prioritize:

a) The challenge of political succession

From Nehru to Shastri

From Shastri to Indira Gandhi

b) Fourth general election 1967

Context of the election.


Election verdict



c) Division of Congress

Indira against the union

1969 presidential election

d) The 1971 election and the restoration of Congress

The assessment and after the Restoration?

  • Understanding the challenges of political succession after Nehru.
  • Consider opposition unity and Congress split as a challenge to Congress dominance.
  • Compare and contrast the new Congress and the old Congress.
  • Summarize the initiatives taken by Indira Gandhi to overcome the challenges she faced
  • Analyze the process of restoring the congressional system
6- The crisis of the democratic order

Topics to prioritize:

a) Context of the emergency.

Economic context.

Gujarat and Bihar movements

Conflict with the judiciary

b) Declaration of emergency

Consequences of the crisis and the response

c) Lessons from the emergency.

d) Politics after the emergency.

Lok Sabha elections 1977

Janata Government


  • Understand the causes and consequences of an emergency
  • Consider lessons from the emergency
  • Assessing the reign of the Janata government
7- Regional aspirations

Topics to prioritize:

a) Indian region and national approach

Tension areas

Jammu and Kashmir

Roots of the problem

External and internal disputes

Politics since 1948

Insurrection and after 2022 and beyond

b) Punjab

Political context

Cycle of violence

Path to peace

c) The North-East

Autonomy requirement

Secessionist movements

Movements against foreigners

Assam and national integration

  • Discuss the implications of regional demands.
  • Analyze the importance of integrity in India.
  • Appreciate the initiatives taken by the government to meet regional aspirations
8- Recent developments in Indian politics

Themes to favor

a) Context of the 1990s

b) The era of coalition alliance politics

c) Political ascension if the mandate of the backward classes implemented political fallout

d) Communitarianism, secularism and democracy.

Ayodhya Dispute Demolition and after

e) Emergence of a new consensus

f) Lok Sabha Elections 2004

g) A growing consensus

  • Understand the significant changes that have occurred in the country since 1989
  • Trace the rise and growth of the BJP.
  • Identify areas of growing consensus

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